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Ahmad, Diana L. The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth Century American West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2007

Chan, Sucheng. Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882-1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991

Chang, Iris. The Chinese in America: A Narrative History. Ny: Viking, 2003

Chinese American History (Blogspot)

Cowan, Robert Ernest and Boutwell Dunlap. Bibliography of the Chinese Question in the United States. San Francisco: A. M. Robertson, 1909

Dirlik, Arlif (editor). Chinese on the American Frontier. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Gyory, Andrew. Closing the Gate: Race, Politics and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Hsu, Madeline Yuan-yin. Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migrations between the United States and South China 1882-1943. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000

Jung, John. Chinese American History (online)

McClain, Charles J. In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994

Millner, Clyde A., Anne M. Butler and David Rich Lewis (editors). Major Problems in the History of the American West. Boston: Wadsworth, 1997.

Pfaelzer, Jean. Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007

Rohe, Randall. "Chinese Camps and Chinatowns: Chinese Mining Settlements in the nOrth American West," in Josephone Lee et. al., Re/Collecting Early American Asian History: Essays in Cultural History, 30-53. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.

Soennichsen, John. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2011.

Wellborn, Mildred. “The Events Leading to the Chinese Exclusion Acts,” Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California, Vol. 9, No. 1/2 (1912-1913), 49-58

Wikipedia: Anti-Chinese Activities in North America

Wikipedia: History of Chinese Americans
Wikipedia: Chinese Exclusion Act

Wong, K. Scott and Sucheng Chan (editors). Claiming America: Constructing Chinese American Identities during the Exclusion Era. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998

Wu, Cheng-Tzu. "Chink!" A Documentary History of Anti-Chinese Prejudice in America. Ny: World Publishing, 1972

Yung, Judy et. al. (editors). Chinese American Voices, From the Gold Rush to the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006

Zhou, Xiaoyan. Qing Perceptions of Anti-Chinese Violence in the United States. Univerity of Wyoming, Masters Thesis, 2008.


British Columbia

Anderson, Kay J. Vancouver's Chinatown: Racial Discourse in Canada, 1875-1980. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 19910

Barnholden, Michael. Reading the Riot Act: A Brief History of Riots in Vancouver. Vancouver: Anvil Press, 2005.

Chan, Anthoy B. Gold Mountain: The Chinese in the New World. Vancouver: New Start Books, 1983.

Chinese Canadian National Council: 1887 Anti-Chinese Riot  Remembered.

Huang, Evelyn. Chinese Canadians: Voices from a Community. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1992

Lai, David Chuenyan. Chinatowns: Towns within Cities in Canada. Vancouver: Univeristy of British Columbia Press, 1988.

Lim, Imogene L. "Pacific Entry, Pacific Century: Chinatowns and Chinese Canadian History," in Josephone Lee et. al., Re/Collecting Early American Asian History: Essays in Cultural History, 15-30. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.

Roy, Patricia E. A White Man's Province: British Columbia Politicians and Chinese and Japanese Immigrants, 1858-1914. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1989.

Wang, W. Perspectives on the 1907 Riots in Selected Asian Languages and International Newspapers.

Wynne, Robert E. "American Labor Leaders and the Vancouver Anti-Oriental Riot." Pacific Northwest Quarterly, vol 57 no 4, Oct 1966, pp 172-179.

Yee, Paul. Struggle and Hope: The Story of Chinese Canadians. Toronto: Umbrella Press, 1996.



Carranco, Lynwood. "Chinese Expulsion from Humboldt County." Pacific Historical Review, vol 30 no 3, Nov 1961, pp 329-340.

DeFalla, Paul M. "Lantern in the Western Sky." The Historical Society of Southern California Journal, March, 1960, pp 57-88.

Dorland, C.P. "Chinese Massacre at Los Angles." Quarterly of the Historical Society of Southern California, Vole 3, January 7, 1994.

Gardner, Martha Mable. "Working on White Womanhood: White Working Women in the San Francisco Anti-Chinese Movement, 1887-1890." Journal of Social History, vol 33 no1, 1999, pp 73-80.

Hagaman, Wallace R. and Steve F. Cottrell. The Chinese Must Go! The Anti-Chinese Boycott, Truckee, California, 1886. Nevada City: Cowboy Press, 2004.

James, Michael E. The Conspiracy of the Good: Civil Rights and the Struggle for Community in Two American Cities. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.

McDannold, Thomas A. California's Chinese Heritage: A Legacy of Places. Stockton: Heritage West Books, 2000.

Moak, Sim. "Chinese Trouble in the Early Days of California," in The Last of the Mill Creeks, and Early Life in Northern California. Chico, CA: 1923.

Mullen, Kevin J. Chinatown Squad. Policing the Dragon: From the Gold Rush to the 21st Century. Novato, CA: Noir Publications, 2008.

Perry, Ronald J. "Wipe Out the Plague Spots": The Expulsion of Chinese from Humboldt County. Masters Thesis, Humboldt State University, 2005.

Sandmeyer, Elmer Clarence. The Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973.

Saxton, Alexander. The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995

Shumsky, Neil Larry. The Evolution of Political Protest and the Workingman's Party in California. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1991.

Shover, Michele. "Chico Women: Nemesis of a Rural Town's Anti-Chinese Campaigns, 1876-1888." California History, vol 67 no 4, Dec 1988, pp 228-243.

Shover, Michele. Chico's Lemm Ranch Murders and The Anti-Chinese Campaign of 1877. Chico: ANCRR, 1998.

Zesch, Scott. "Chinese Los Angeles in 1870-1871: The Makings of a Massacre." Southern California Quarterly, vol 90, Summer 2008, pp 109-158.

Zesch, Scott, The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.


Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Denver's Anti-Chinese Riot.

Wortman, Roy T. "Denver's Anti-Chinese Riot, 1880". The Colorado Magazine, vol 42 no 4, Fall 1965.

Zhu, Liping. A Chinaman's Chance: The Chinese on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997



Owens, Kenneth. "Pierce City Incident, 1885-1886". In Dirlik, Arlif (editor). Chinese on the American Frontier. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001, pp 259-266.

Trull, Fern Coble. The History of the Chinese in Idaho from 186 to 1910. MA thesis, University of Oregon, 1972.

Wegars, Priscilla. The History and Archaeology of the Chinese in Northern Idaho, 1880 through 1910. Unpublished dissertation, University of Idaho, 1991.

Yu, Lihua. Chinese Immigrants in Idaho. Unpublished dissertation, Bowling Green State University (Ohio), 1991.

Zhu, Liping. A Chinaman's Chance: The Chinese on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997



Flaherty, Stacy. Asia vs. America: Chinese and Organized Labor in Nineteenth Century Butte, Montana. MA thesis, George Washington 

Montana Memory Project. Original court documents from Hum Lay et. al. v. Baldwin.

National Archives. Affidavit and Flyers from the Chinese Boycott Case.

Swartout, Robert R., Jr. "Kwantgtung to Big Sky: The Chinese in Montana, 1864-1900." In Dirlik, Arlif (editor). Chinese on the American Frontier. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001, pp 367-381.



Chung, Sue Fawn and Elmer Rusco. "The Anti-Chinese Riot in Tonopah, Nevada, 1903." Chinese America: History and Perspectives. 2003, pp 35-45.

Chung, Sue Fawn with the Nevada State Museum. Images of America: The Chinese in Nevada. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2011. 

Chung, Sue Fawn. In Pursuit of Gold: Chinese American Miners and Merchants in the American West. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011.

Lai, Him Mark. "The 1903 Anti-Chinese Riot in Tonopah, Nevada from a Chinese Perspective: Two Letters." Chinese America: History and Perspectives, 2003, pp 47-51.

Summerhill, Brad. "Chinatown Burns." Available online in Reno Turns 100.


Edson, Christopher Howard. The Chinese in Eastern Oregon 1860-1890. San Francisco: R & E Research Associates, 1974.

Nokes, R. Gregory. Massacred for Gold: The Chinese in Hells Canyon. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2009.

Reavis, Jim. The Chinese Troubles, Union County, Oregon. Available online at Oregon Genealogy and History.

Wong, Marie Rose. Sweet Cakes, Long Journey: The Chinatowns of Portland, Oregon. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004



Asher, Brad. "Chinese Laborers Meet Resistance in the Washington Territory." HistoryNet, June 12, 2006.

Bagley, Clarence B. History of Seattle, From the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Chicago, S. J. Clarke, 1916 Volume II, Chapter XXV, The Anti-Chinese Agitation and Riots, pp. 455-478

Chin, Art. Golden Tassels: A History of the Chinese in Washington. Seattle: Self-published, 1997.

Chin, Doug and Art Chin. Up Hill: The Settlement and Diffusion of the Chinese in Seattle, Washington. Seattle: Shorey Book Store, 1973.

Dougher. Sarah. Sent Out the Track They Built: Sinophonia in Olympia, 1886. Self-published, 1998.

Echtle, Edward. Early Chinese Community at Olympia, Washington. Undergraduate Thesis, The Evergreen State College, 1997.

Feichter, Nancy Koehler. The Chinese in the Inland Empire During the Nineteenth Century. Unpublished Master's Thesis, State College of Washington (Washington State University), 1959.

Fish, Edwards. Past at Present in Issaquah, Washington. Self-published, c1967.

Gaylord, Mary. Eastern Washington's Past: Chinese and Other Pioneers, 1860-1910. Washington, DC: Dept. of Agriculture, 1992.

Hildebrand, Lorraine Barker. Straw Hats, Sandals and Steel: The Chinese in Washington State. Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society.

Hunt, Herbert. Tacoma: Its History and Builders, Vol. 1. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1916.

Johnson, Tim. "The Last 'Chinaman': Observing the Anniversary of Whatcom's Asian Expulsion," Cascadia Weekly, October 27, 2010.
Karlin, Jules Alexander. "The Anti-Chinese Outbreaks in Seattle, 1885-1886." Pacific Northwest Quarterly, April, 1948. pp. 103-130

Karlin, Jules Alexander. "The Anti-Chinese Outbreaks in Tacoma, 1885." Pacific Historical Review, August, 1954. pp. 271-283

Kinnear, George. Anti-Chinese Riots in Seattle, Wn., February 8th, 1886. Seattle: Self-published, 1911
Morgan, Murray. Puget's Sound: A Narrative of Early Tacoma and the Southern Sound. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003

Olympia's Historic Chinese Community. Available online at

Report of the Governor of Washington Territory to the Secretary of the Interior, 1886. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1886

Roth, Lottie Roeder. The History of Whatcom County, Vol. 1. Chicago: Pioneer Historical Publishing, 1926.

Schwantes, Carlos A. Radical Heritage: Labor, Socialism and Reform in Washington and British Columbia, 1885-1917. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979.

Various newspapers published in Washington, 1880-1890, including the Palouse Gazette, Seattle Call, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Tacoma Ledger, Tacoma Tribune and Washington Standard. These are available on microfilm at the Seattle Public Library, University of Washington Library, Washington State Library or Washington State University Library.

Wilcox, W.P. “Anti-Chinese Riots in Washington” Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol 20 No 3 (20 July 1929), 204-12.

Wynne, Robert Edward. Reaction to the Chinese in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, 1850-1910. New York: Arno Press, 1978.



Carroll, Murray L.  Governor Francis E. Warren,The United State Army and the Chinese Massacre at Rock Springs. Privately published, copy available at the Rock Springs Historical Museum.

Chadley, Henry F. The Chinese Story and Rock Springs, Wyoming. 17-page account published by the Sweetwater County Historical Society, Wyoming.

History of Union Pacific Coal Mines 1846-1940: Chinese Riot and Massacre

Wikipedia: Rock Springs Massacre



  1. Pfaelzer, p 47

  2. Pfaelzer, p. 301

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